International ID for Author Rights and protection Intellectual Property

[rev_slider alias="main-slider"]


Why Publish Your Article in IJSURP


Public Research


Articles from over
100 Countries

Risk Factors of Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Review Article

Authore(s) : Abanoub Gabra || Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyAssuit UniversityEgypt.

Volume : (13), Issue : 205, February - 2018

Abstract :

Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is the most severe form of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP). It is diagnosed clinically by its typical clinical picture and exclusion of other causes of nausea and vomiting in the pregnant  woman.  Nausea  and  vomiting are  a  common experience affecting 50% to 90% of all women. It is the most  common  indication for  hospitalization during  the first half of pregnancy. HG occurs in only about 0.5 to 2% of cases but when it occurs, it may be associated with morbidity of both mother and fetus. There are many risk factors related to HG, but we are still in need of adequate clinical research methodology and design for reporting these associations. In this article, we will discuss them and review epidemiological studies and statistics that support them. HG is found to be common in young aged mothers. There is a debate between studies regarding ethnicity  as  a  risk  factor.  Low socio-economic  level  is found to be associated with HG. Dietary factors are considered in Indians who are mostly vegan and Asians who are mostly lactose intolerant. Deficiencies of trace elements are associated with more progression of the disease. Women affected by NVP are mostly nonsmoker. Molar pregnancy, multiple pregnancies, fetus with Down syndrome and primigravidity are common obstetric risk factors.  Studies  theorize  relation  between hyperthyroidism and HG based on structural similarity between hCG and TSH but more studies are needed to highlight  this  relation. Mood  and  anxiety  disorders  are associated with the disease but causal relation has not been established yet. GERD, peptic ulcer disease and specifically H.  pylori  infection  are  among  common  risk factors. Asthma is associated with prolonged duration of hospitalization. Strong  positive  family  history  of  HG  in patients highlights genetic predisposition of this disease.

Keywords: Hyperemesis; Disease; Health.

Keywords :NVP: Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy; HG: Hyperemesis Gravidarum.

Article: Download PDF Journal DOI : 301/704

Cite This Article:

Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Review Article

Vol.I (13), Issue.I 205

Article No : 10059

Number of Downloads : 106

References :
Philip B (2003) Hyperemesis gravidarum : literature review. WMJ 102: 46-51. Lee  NM,  Saha  S  (2011)  Nausea  and  vomiting  of  pregnancy.Gastroenterol Clin North Am 40: 1-27. Nielbl  J   (2010)   Clinical   practice.  Nausea   and   vomiting  in pregnancy. N Engl J Med 363: 1544-1550. Ismail SK, Kenny L (2007) Review on hyperemesis gravidarum.Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 21: 755-769. Lagiou P,... More
  1. Philip B (2003) Hyperemesis gravidarum : literature review. WMJ 102: 46-51.
  2. Lee  NM,  Saha  S  (2011)  Nausea  and  vomiting  of  pregnancy.Gastroenterol Clin North Am 40: 1-27.
  3. Nielbl  J   (2010)   Clinical   practice.  Nausea   and   vomiting  in pregnancy. N Engl J Med 363: 1544-1550.
  4. Ismail SK, Kenny L (2007) Review on hyperemesis gravidarum.Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 21: 755-769.
  5. Lagiou P, Tamimi R, Mucci LA, Trichopoulos D, Adami HO (2003) Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy in relation to prolactin, estrogens, and progesterone: A prospective study. Obstet Gynecol 101: 639-644.
  6. Castillo MJ,  Phillippi  JC  (2015)  Hyperemesis  Gravidarum.  J Neonatal Nurs 6: 21-28.
  7. London V, Grube S, Sherer DM, Abulafia O (2017) Hyperemesis gravidarum: A review of recent literature. Pharmacology 100:161-171.
  8. Chhetry M,  Thakur  A,  Uprety  DK,  Basnet  P,  Joshi  R  (2016) Hyperemesis gravidarum in a tertiary care centre in eastern nepal: a prospective observational study. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 28: 18-21.
  9. Heitmann K,  Nordeng  H,  Havnen  GC,  Solheimsnes  A,  Holst  L (2017) The burden of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: severe impacts on quality of life, daily life functioning and willingness to become pregnant again - results from a cross- sectional study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 17: 75.
  10. Birkeland E, Guro Stokke, Randi J, Tangvik, Erik A, et al. (2015) Norwegian PUQE  (pregnancy-unique  quantification of  emesis and  nausea)  identifies patients with  hyperemesis  gravidarum and poor nutritional intake: A prospective cohort validation study. PLoS ONE 10: e0119962.
  11. Sandven I, Abdelnoor M (2010) Critical appraisal of case-control studies of risk factors or etiology of Hyperemesis gravidarum. Arch Gynecol Obstet 282: 1-10.
  12. Eliakim  R,   Abulafia   O,   Sherer   DM   (2000)   Hyperemesis gravidarum: a current review. Am J Perinatol 17: 207-218.
  13. Kallen B, Lundberg G, Aberg A (2003) Relationship between vitamin use, smoking, and nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 82: 916-920.
  14. Mullin PM (2012) No increased risk of psychological/behavioral disorders in  siblings  of  women  with  hyperemesis  gravidarum (HG)  unless  their  mother  had  HG.  J  Dev  Orig  Health  Dis  3:375-379.
  15. Mullin PM et al. (2012) Risk factors, treatments, and outcomes associated with prolonged hyperemesis gravidarum. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 25: 632-636.
  16. Depue RH, Bernstein L, Ross RK, Judd HL, Henderson BE (1987) Hyperemesis gravidarum  in  relation to  estradiol  levels, pregnancy outcome, and other maternal factors: A seroepidemiologic study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156: 1137-1141.
  17. Karaca C, Guler N, Yazar A, Camlica H, Demir K, et al. (2004) Is lower socio-economic status a risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection in  pregnant  women  with  hyperemesis  gravidarum? Turk J Gastroenterol 15: 86-89.
  18. Fell  DB,  Dodds  L,  Joseph  KS,  Allen  VM,  Butler  B  (2006)  Risk factors for hyperemesis gravidarum requiring hospital admission during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 107: 277-284.
  19. Penney DS (2005) Helicobacter pylori and severe nausea and vomiting  during  pregnancy.  J  Midwifery  Womens  Health  50: 418-422.
  20. Grjibovski AM, Vikanes A, Stoltenberg C, Magnus P (2008) Consanguinity and the   risk   of   hyperemesis   gravidarum   in Norway. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 87: 20-25.
  21. Haugen M, Vikanes A, Brantsaeter AL, Meltzer HM, Grjibovski AM, et al. (2011) Diet before pregnancy and the risk of hyperemesis gravidarum. Br J Nutr 106: 596-602.
  22. Kosus A, Eser A, Kosus N, Usluogullari B, Hizli D (2016) Hyperemesis gravidarum and its relation with maternal body fat composition. J Obstet Gynaecol 36: 822-826.
  23. Signorello LB, Harlow BL, Wang S, Erick MA (1998) Saturated fat intake and the risk of severe hyperemesis gravidarum. Epidemiology 9: 636-640.
  24. Verberg  MFG,  Gillott DJ,  Al-Fardan  N,  Grudzinskas  JG  (2005) Hyperemesis gravidarum, a literature review. Hum Reprod Update 11: 527-539.
  25. Trogstad LIS, Stoltenberg C, Magnus P, Skjaerven R, Irgens LM (2005) Recurrence risk in hyperemesis gravidarum. BJOG 112:1641-1645.
  26. Panesar NS, Chan KW, Li CY, Rogers MS (2006) Status of anti- thyroid peroxidase  during  normal  pregnancy  and  in  patients with hyperemesis gravidarum. Thyroid 16: 481-484.
  27. Goodwin TM, Montoro M, Mestman JH, Pekary AE, Hershman JM (1992) The role of chorionic gonadotropin in transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 75: 1333-1337.
  28. Rodien P (2004) Abnormal stimulation of the thyrotrophin receptor during gestation. Hum Reprod Update 10: 95-105.
  29. Kjeldgaard HK, Eberhard-Gran M, Benth JS, Vikanes AV (2017) Hyperemesis gravidarum and the risk of emotional distress during and  after  pregnancy.  Arch  Womens  Ment  Health  20:747-756.
  30. Mitchell-Jones N (2017) Psychological morbidity associated with hyperemesis  gravidarum:   a   systematic   review   and   meta- analysis. BJOG 124: 20-30.
  31. Kim DR, Connolly KR, Cristancho P, Zappone M, Weinrieb RM (2009) Psychiatric consultation of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum. Arch Womens Ment Health 12: 61-67.
  32. El Younis CM, Abulafia O, Sherer DM (1998) Rapid marked response of  severe  hyperemesis  gravidarum  to  oral erythromycin. Am J Perinatol 15: 533-534.
... Less

WordPress Lightbox Plugin